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Expansion of Wind Energy Utilization in Germany

 

As the forerunner to the Renewable Energy Act (REA), the Electricity Feed-in From Renewables Act dated December 7, 1990 bound energy supply companies to buying electricity generated with renewables and guaranteed electricity producers minimum tariffs. The figure below shows how the wind capacity installed has changed since. Installed offshore wind capacity reaches for the first time almost 1 GW in 2014 and has increased ever since.

Highcharts Example
Data source for image

 

 Development of the net capacity of installed onshore and offshore wind turbines in Germany

Data sources: [Keiler and Häuser]; [Fraunhofer IEE]

 

 

A wind capacity of 5193 MW was installed new in 2014. An onshore record expansion of 4670 MW was achieved, surpassing the previous record year (2002) by 47 percent. The figure below illustrates the extent to which annual capacity expansion increased once the 1991 Electricity Feed-in From Renewables Act came into effect. Whilst newly installed capacity before 1998 was »thousands of MW«, it reached peaks in 2002 and 2014 with 3187 MW and 4670 MW respectively. The high expansion figures in 2002 can be interpreted as a delayed, positive reaction to the REA coming into force in April 2000, and the high expansion level in 2014 as a pull-forward effect due to the new REA allowance regulations coming into effect.

 

Highcharts Example
Data source for image

 

 Annual installation of onshore wind capacity in Germany

Data source: [Keiler and Häuser]

 

 
In 2014, expansion for onshore WTs was far higher over all quarters than in previous years. Implementation of the new REA in August 2014 means that in the future, payment will be calculated based on expansion. If annual onshore expansion is over 2600 MW net, payment is to be lowered from January 2016 in line with the flexible cap on a quarterly basis (see also here) (§§ 3, 29 REA). A diminution of the expansion in the following years can be explained with the fact, that a lot of projects were preponed. 

 

The EEG Amendment 2017 has been active since the first of January 2017. This states that the remuneration for all renewable energy generation shall be determined using tendering procedures. There is an expansion quota for each year that corresponds to the EEG expansion path shown in the figure. The construction and commissioning of WTGs that were approved in 2016 or earlier, under the previous legal regulations of the fixed remunerations, was lastly in 2018 possible. The expansion is later on determined in accordance to already announced amounts and the certain implemetation periods and quotas.

 

The expansion path in the following figure represents an assumption by Fraunhofer IEE regarding future development. This includes the tendering quantities currently required by law, the expansion in 2018 on the basis of existing permits and the decommissioning of wind turbines after they have reached their 20-year lifespan.

 

The current political basis is formed according to the Law of Climate Protection of the Federal Government 2016 [BMUB] with an otlook on 2030. The planned target capacity of 69,6 GW was also the absis for the scenario frame of the Grid Development Plan of 2030 [Informationsplattform der deutschen Übertragungsnetzbetrieber]. However, this capacity was not confirmed by the Federal Power Grid Agency, but it was increased to a capacity of 81,5 GW on-shore and 17GW off-shore [Bundesnetzagentur].

 

 

 
 

  Past development and expansion scenarios for wind energy on- and off-shore

Date source: [Keiler and Häuser][Crawford and Hudson][Informationsplattform der deutschen Übertragungsnetzbetrieber]; [Bundesregierung][Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit]; [Europäische Union_Klimaschutzplan]

 

 

 

The goals for wind energy expansion on the National Action Plan for Renewable Energies, in accordance to the Directive 2009/28/EG for achieving a share of 20 per cent of renewable energy in the EU by 2020, are also shown. It has, in the meantime, been possible to realise these expansion goals due to the great number of new installations over the previous years, although the target of a 38,6 percent share of renewable energy in the electricity sector has not yet been achieved [Bundesumweltministerium].

 

The expansion of wind energy started with the Grid Feed-in Act of 7 December 1990, which compelled energy supply companies to accept renewably generated electricity while assuring a minimum rate of feed-in remuneration.