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Electricity Price


The average price that a household with an average annual consumption of 2500–5000 kWh has to pay, was under 30 Ct / kWh in the first half of 2018. The price fell even lower for large industry consumers from 14,47 Ct / kWh in 2016 to 12,35 Ct / kWh in 2018.  [Eurostat]




Electricity price development

Data sources: [Eurostat][Eurostat]; [EPEX SPOT]; [UeNB];




In addition to the costs of electricity generation and supply, the electricity price that industrial and private customers pay also includes a variety of surcharges. The cost item generation, transport and sales, which made up 46 per cent of the electricity price in 2018, has remained more or less constant over the last five years. In addition, the electricity price comprises eight government taxes and levies [BDEW]:





Composition of the electricity price for households with a consumption of 3500 kWh a year

Data source: [BDEW]



The EEG levy fell from 6,88 Ct / kWh to 6,792 Ct /kWh (-1,3 percent) in 2018 and will drastically fall again in 2019 to 6.405 Ct / kWh. The main reason for this is mainly the increasing price for electricity, which result in lower portion of the assured feed-in price of the market premium and the EEG-levy to be provided. The share of photovoltaics fell by 0,2 Ct / kWh, wheras the share of biomass fell for another 0,1 Ct / kWh. When it comes to wind energy, a fall of the EEG-levy is recorded for on-shore wind energy, but it is evened out by a small increase for off-shore wind energy.





Composition of the EEG levy

Data source: [UeNB 2019][UeNB 2017][UeNB 2016][UeNB 2018]



In the compensation scheme for large electricity-intensive enterprises (§§ 40 ff. EEG), beneficiary enterprises pay a lower EEG levy depending on their electricity consumption and intensity, or are completely exempted. 2835 consumption points with a privileged power quantity of 107 233 GWh profited from this in 2016, whereas in 2015 there were only 2941 consumption points with a power quantity of 108 127 GWh [BMWi]. According to the 2014 calculations of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), the industry privilege increases the EEG levy to the tune of 1.26 Ct / kWh. The same study quantifies the effect of declining electricity trading prices with 1.47 Ct / kWh [EEG].


Every October the TSO calculate the EEG levy due in the following year. The calculation of the levy is based on the September balance. As a result of deviations between prognosis and real-term development, the balance in September 2018 (based on the calculation for the levy in the following year) was € 3,652 bn. The positive coverage of the account affects the EEG levy with 1,035 ct / kWh (cf. figure). In order to compensate for uncertainties in the calculation of the TSOs, 0,423 ct / kWh were earmarked as liquidity reserve [UeNB 2019]. The extent to which the special compensation arrangements for electricity-intensive companies under Section 2 EEG were used has increased in reference to the previous year. The number of delivery points increased from 87 to 2840, with the privileged electricity quantity increase of 4,6 % to 110 500 GWh [BWA].


The trading volume for Germany and Austria (Phelix) on the EPEX spot market has doubled from 135 TWh in 2009 to over 264 TWh in 2015. Also contributing to this is the obligation to sell EEG electricity via the stock exchange that was introduced in 2010 [BNetzA]. The market price again sank further to a new record low at the beginning of 2016. From February to May the price was at a very low level. In the autumn the prices rose again and in November they exceeded the pervious year’s level. Strong demand from abroad also contributed to this, after several nuclear power plants in France had to be taken offline for safety checks.


There was already a record for electricity export in 2015. The export surplus was 49,120 GWh, an increase of 35 per cent over the previous year. Germany thus achieved a foreign trade surplus of € 2.06 bn in 2015, whereby 35,718 GWh electricity was imported for an average of 4.22 Ct / kWh and 84,838 GWh exported for an average of 4.21 Ct / kWh [DeStatis].





Foreign trade with electricity

Data source: [DeStatis]


When it comes to the foreign trade balance of 2018, there existed a rise of surplus in the electricity market from €1,81 billion in 2017, to €1,86 billion (see image above). The amount of imported electrical energy in 2018 lies at 31 135 GWh at an average price of 3,98 ct / kWh, whereas the 80 204 GWh were exported, at an average price of 4,28 ct / kWh [DeStatis]. The most important export-countries were the Netherlands, Austria and Switzerland.Electricity was mainly imported from France, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Austria and Switzerland.