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Final Energy and Sector Coupling


Final energy is the amount of energy that can be recovered from primary energy after all energy conversion steps and can actually be used by the user. About one-fifth of this final energy requirement is currently covered by electricity, although penetration into the sectors differs widely. A further increase is also dependent on the fluctuating supply being used as fully as possible. The aim is therefore not to reduce peaks in supply, e.g. due to strong winds in the north, because neither consumers nor grid capacities for transport to the south are available, but to make them available to other sectors. Through this coupling, applications from the industrial and transport consumption sectors can be gradually switched over from fossil fuels to the use of electricity from renewable energy sources. The main areas of application for sector coupling include electric vehicles, and power-to-heat and power-to-gas uses.






Final energy demand by sector

Source: [AGE]




The following figure shows the historical development of the final energy demand in the four sectors of industry, trade, household and transportation in relation to the gross domestic product. If the energy transition is to succeed, it is essential that energy demand can be reduced independently of economic growth. However, the final energy demand was last reduced in 2014, in contrast to 2017 when the energy demand rose by 1,9 percent, which is a bit lower than the price-adjusted gross domestic product.







Development of final energy demand

Sources:  [AGE][ABE], [Statistisches Bundesamt]