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Final energy and sector coupling


Final energy is the amount of energy that can be recovered from primary energy after all energy conversion steps and can actually be used by the user. About one-fifth of this final energy requirement is currently covered by electricity, although penetration into the sectors differs widely. A further increase is also dependent on the fluctuating supply being used as fully as possible. The aim is therefore not to reduce peaks in supply, e.g. due to strong winds in the north, because neither consumers nor grid capacities for transport to the south are available, but to make them available to other sectors. Through this coupling, applications from the industrial and transport consumption sectors can be gradually switched over from fossil fuels to the use of electricity from renewable energy sources. The main areas of application for sector coupling include electric vehicles, and power-to-heat and power-to-gas uses.




Final energy requirement by sector

Source: [AGE]




The following figure shows the historical development of the final energy requirement in the four sectors of industry, trade, households and transport in relation to gross domestic product. If the energy transition is to succeed, it is essential that energy requirements can be reduced independently of economic growth. However, the final energy requirement was last reduced in 2014, and the final energy demand rose again more strongly than economic growth in the following years.





Development of final energy requirement

Sources:  [AGE][ABE], [Statistisches Bundesamt]